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Mid-Fidelity Manikins

Mid-fidelity manikins are simulation devices that offer a balance between realism and affordability, providing learners with a more immersive and interactive training experience compared to low-fidelity models. These manikins feature anatomical accuracy, physiological functions, and programmable scenarios to simulate a wide range of clinical conditions and patient presentations in healthcare education and training.


Anatomy and Physiology

  • Realistic Anatomy: Mid-fidelity manikins replicate human anatomy with greater detail and accuracy, including anatomical landmarks, body systems, and internal organs, to facilitate realistic clinical assessments and interventions by learners.
  • Physiological Functions: These manikins simulate physiological responses, such as breathing, heart sounds, lung sounds, pulses, blood pressure, and cardiac rhythms, to provide learners with realistic patient encounters and vital sign monitoring during simulation-based training.

Material and Construction

  • Durable Construction: Mid-fidelity manikins are constructed from durable materials, such as high-quality plastics, silicone, and fabric, to withstand repeated use, manipulation, and wear by learners without significant degradation or damage to the simulation device.
  • Realistic Skin: These manikins feature realistic skin textures, colors, and tactile sensations and elasticity, to enhance the fidelity and immersion of simulation scenarios and clinical simulations.

Functionality and Performance

  • Programmable Scenarios: Mid-fidelity manikins offer programmable scenarios, simulations, and clinical cases that can be customized, controlled, and adjusted by instructors or facilitators to meet specific learning objectives, educational outcomes, and training needs.
  • Interactivity: Learners interact with mid-fidelity manikins through physical examination maneuvers, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic interventions, and patient care activities, receiving real-time feedback, responses, and data from the simulation device.


Clinical Skills Development

  • Hands-on Training: Mid-fidelity manikins provide learners with hands-on practice opportunities to develop and refine clinical skills, procedural techniques, and patient care competencies in a controlled and supportive learning environment.
  • Scenario-Based Learning: These manikins are integrated into simulation scenarios, clinical case studies, and interactive exercises to create realistic patient encounters and clinical simulations that challenge learners to apply their knowledge and skills in context.

Team Training

  • Interprofessional Collaboration: Mid-fidelity manikins support team-based training and interprofessional education initiatives by simulating multidisciplinary clinical scenarios, collaborative care situations, and communication challenges encountered in healthcare practice.
  • Teamwork Skills: Learners practice teamwork skills, leadership abilities, communication strategies, and crisis management techniques while working together to assess, diagnose, and manage simulated patient cases and clinical emergencies.

Assessment and Evaluation

  • Performance Assessment: Mid-fidelity manikins enable instructors to assess and evaluate learner performance, clinical competencies, and critical thinking skills through objective measures, structured checklists, and qualitative observations during simulation-based assessments.
  • Feedback and Debriefing: Instructors provide learners with constructive feedback, debriefing sessions, and performance evaluations based on their interactions, decisions, and actions during simulation scenarios, fostering reflection, self-assessment, and skill improvement.



  • Enhanced Realism: Mid-fidelity manikins offer a higher level of realism and immersion compared to low-fidelity models, featuring realistic anatomical structures, physiological responses, and clinical scenarios that mimic actual patient encounters and healthcare practice.


  • Flexible Use: These manikins are versatile tools that can be used in various educational settings, including classrooms, skills laboratories, simulation centers, and clinical environments, to teach a wide range of clinical skills, procedures, and scenarios to learners at different levels of training and experience.

Training Efficacy

  • Effective Learning: Mid-fidelity manikins support effective learning outcomes, skill acquisition, and knowledge retention by providing learners with engaging, interactive, and hands-on training experiences that replicate the complexities and challenges of real-world healthcare practice.



  • Moderate Expense: Mid-fidelity manikins are more expensive than low-fidelity models but may be more cost-effective than high-fidelity simulators, making them a viable option for healthcare education programs with moderate budgets and resource constraints.


  • Maintenance Requirements: These manikins require regular maintenance, calibration, and software updates to ensure optimal performance, functionality, and reliability over time, which may involve additional costs, time, and resources for healthcare institutions and educational providers.

Technical Complexity

  • Technical Skills: Operating mid-fidelity manikins may require technical skills, training, and familiarity with simulation software, hardware components, and troubleshooting procedures, which may pose challenges for instructors and educators without prior experience in simulation technology.